The Early Modern Period, 1450-1750: The World Shrinks

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· The Russian and Ottoman Empire extended over European and Asian territories while the Mughal Empire ruled the Indian subcontinent.
· Second big change was trade routes, in 1450 international trade focused on exchanges with Asia, Africa, and Europe
· By 1750 oceangoing routes across the pacific had become important
· The ottoman Turks who conquered Constantinople, the capital of the byzantine empire was the development of the early modern period
· Second development was in 1450,the progression of explorations by Europeans along the Atlantic coast of Africa
· Third development was military technology, European Mainers began to use the compass, introduced by Chinese and Arabs
· Europeans also learned how to design better sailing ships
· The most important military technology was the use of guns and gunpowder, another Chinese invention.
· Guns affected political patterns in Africa, japan, and Europe
· Sturdier ships where armed with cannons, sailed the new routes across Atlantic and pacific oceans
· These developments led to the forgoing of a new global economy, new biological exchanges of food, animals, and people and the emergence of new, large empires based on guns
· International trade increased, Americans were in the exchanges as well
· Food from the Americans like corn and potatoes began to grow in asia and Europe.
· Good agriculture-> increase in population
· Massive African slave trade was in part a response to labor storage
· New animals like horses
· Biological exchanges are called Columbian exchanges.
· New food-> increase in population worldwide
· New empires in India, middle east southern Europe and Russia challenged political traditions in their imperial territories
· The main developments led to a change in power
· New influence in science in western Europe
· The spread of world religions continued
· No technology breakthroughs until after 1750
· Indians in the Americas died by European and African immigrants brought diseases like smallpox and measles
· Europeans used silver to pay for chines goods
· Chinese government made taxes be paid in silver
· Growing pressure to work harder
· Protestantism preached a work ethic that convinced many people that labor was a way to demonstrate god’s grace
· Child labor increased

Chapter 16

World Economy

Chapter 17

The Transformation

Chapter 18

The Rise of Russia

Chapter 19

Early Latin America

Chapter 20

Africa in the Atlantic Slave Trade

Chapter 21
The Muslim Empires
chapter 22
Asian transitions

Warda khurram
Period 6
Summary on The Early Modern Era
The Early Modern Era emerged new global economy, new trading exchanges of food, animals and people (slaves), and the emergence of new, large empires. There was new military technology; Europeans began to use compasses and other navigational devices first introduced by the Chinese and Arabs. New guns played a role on land and overseas. International trade increased, for the first time the Americans were included. Trade routes changed, in 1450 international trade focused on exchanges among Asia, Africa, and Europe an d also some seaways like Indian ocean and the Mediterranean sea. This was a major step to bring the world closer together. The spread of religions continued to spread, with Islam reaching Southeast Asia and parts of southeastern Europe.
Silver became the global currency of the early modern world. Production and use of silver led to the new world economy. Silver allowed Spain to build massive armies and new buildings. Silver is used to buy Asian goods. Technology began to change trade also. There were new devices like navigation tools. Portugal’s rulers were drawn by the discovery of new lands. Henry the navigator, organized expeditions along the African cost. European had the ability to determine the framework for international trade. For example, in the Mediterranean Sea, Spanish directed fleet defeated the navy of the Ottoman Empire, in the battle of Lepanto in 1571. European influence led to the formation of special western enclaves in cites, where western traders won legal rights. Europeans were the most active competition in world trade. The core nations in the world economy supplemented their growing economic prowess by political parties. Mercantilism was when a nation-state not imported goods from outside its own empire. Hundreds of North Americans contributed scientific findings to the British royal society. European colonies in Asia were exceptional, colonization in Asia entered a new phase as the British and French began to struggle for control of India.
The renaissance emerged new styles and beliefs. The protestant reformation and the catholic response to it caused even wider changes. The scientific revolution occurred in the 17th century and changed the nature and status of science. Russia’s early modern development emphasized territorial expansion and strengthened the tsarist rule. Peter the great led the first westernization effort in history.
The Spain and Portugal during the 15th and 16th century tell the stories of glory, personal gain, the creation of empires and the resulting questions about the relationship b/w Europe and the peoples of the world. Spain and Portugal created empires in the Americas by conquest and settlement. Latin America created important political and cultural forms. Spaniards and Portuguese were often called Iberians because they all came from the Iberian Peninsula, during the middle ages the land were cultural frontiers between Christianity and Islam. New societies, created by Spaniards and Portuguese arose throughout the American continents. Encomiendas were grants of American Indian laborers provided by the framework for relations based on economic dominance. Spain and Portugal conquests of the Americas can be dived into three period; 1492-1570, main lines of administration and economy, 1570-1700, consolidation and maturity, finally the 18th century, period of reform and reorganization.
For centuries before the rise of the ottomans, Turkish speaking peoples from central asia administrators played key roles in Islamic civilization as soldiers/administrators. The collapse of the Seljuk Turkic kingdom of rum in eastern Anatolia after the invasion by the Mongols in 1243, opened ways for the ottomans to seize power. Turkic peoples, fleeing the Mongols and those in search of easy booty, flooded into the region. One of these people called the ottomans after the early leader named Osman, came to dominate, began to build a new empire based on Anatolia
Babur, known as “the tiger” was the first Mughal emperor of india . Descent of his mothers side from chinggis khan and his fath side Turkish king timur. He decided to meet his enemy north of the lodi capital at Delhi . The lodi sultan, Ibrahim, ere more than thousand elephants that would crush. By the end of 1530, the tiger was master of northern india and the founder of the Mughal dynasty. Humayan son and successor, akbar was only 13 years old, whethe Mughals enemies moved quickly to take advantage. He was a fine military commander. He was a workaholic, he didn’t get any sleep
The Asian sea trading network can be broken down into three main zones, the Arab zone which traded glass and carpets, the Indian zone which traded cotton textiles and the china zone which traded silk textiles. Portuguese use force to extract spices and other goods form asia resulted from lack of numbers and trading goods with their superior ships and weaponry. The Portuguese managed to control much of the flow of species, they had harsh punishments for rival traders like cutting off their hands. Asian armies offset the Europeans advantage in weapons and organization for waging war on land. The spread of roman Catholicism was a fundamental part of the global mission of the Portuguese and Spanish.