What is the middle east?
Counties that are in southwest asia and north Africa. The Balkans and the ottomans empire were in the British foreign services. Four common languages, Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Hebrew.
Whats a region, anyways?
Physical geography, like rivers. The middle east is the birthplace of Judaism, Islam, and Christianity . “Syria, Lebanon, Israel and the Palestinian territories, and is often seen as an important area in part because of its close historical connection with countries in Europe and around the Mediterranean.”
Whats in, whats out?
Countires that re part of the Middle East, majority speaking is Arabic.
  • Bahrain
  • Egypt
  • Iran
  • Iraq
  • Israel
  • Jordan
  • Kuwait
  • Lebanon
  • Oman
  • The Palestinian Territories
  • Qatar
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Syria
  • United Arab Emirates
  • Yemen
Not quite the middle east
Until the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Central Asian countries were usually studied as part of the Soviet bloc and Pakistan and Afghanistan as part of political and cultural region of South Asia, rather than as part of the Middle East.
Sudan is another country that is sometimes considered to be a part of the Middle East, sometimes because of its close and often contentious relationship with Egypt.
When the middle is not
The first is to confuse the Arab world with the Middle East. The Middle East is a very diverse region, with many languages and cultures
The second common mistake is to equate the Middle East and Islam. While Islam began in the area that is now the modern state of Saudi Arabia, it has spread over the centuries so that there are communities of Muslims all over the world.


Now that I look back at my mind map, it looks like I have similar things. For example that middle east is mostly made of Muslims and Arabs. I also said that the geography has something to do with what counties are in the Middle East and what aren’t. And that most the Middle East is made up four languages; Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Hebrew. The Middle East is the birth place of Judaism, Islam and Christianity, I had Islam but not the other two, but it makes sense because the ottoman and blakans empires where there. I was surprised that north Africa was part of the middle east.
The first map: It shows the ottoman empire, it includes some northeast afircan countires like Egypt. The west and the north of suadia arbaia, turkey and Bulgaria.
Second map: includes turkey, Saudi Arabia, iran, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iraq, Jordan, yeman and Syria. “ Syria, Lebanon, Israel and the Palestinian territories, and is often seen as an important area in part because of its close historical connection with countries in Europe and around the Mediterranean.”
Third map: doesn’t include oman, why? Islamic sacred state, where mecca and medica are, the word “sacred” makes sense but I don’t think there is a need to make a separate state for it. Saudi Arabia, greater Jordan, Iraq spilt into three countries, which probably will happen due to the political views.





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Outlne notes 661-666. ad 727-729


Egypt and the rise of nationalism in the middle east
· Egypt was one of the countries that still had the emergance of nationalism, conquest and domination
· Ahmad Orabi and other egyptian officers led to british occupation in 1882 this meant double colinization for the egyptian people
· Lord cromer, he pushed for econmic reforms, that could elimate debts of the puppet khedical
· He also grew reforms in the bureaucracy and the construction of irrigation systems
· As the wealth grew the relationship between the landlords and the peassents became more intense
· Orabis revolt in 1882 was the casue of egyptian indepedance taken up by the sons of the effendi or the business/professional families of the new middle class
· Egyptian wrriters attakced the british for their racist arrogrance and their monopolization
· Eqyptian masses were demostrated by the dinshawai incident in 1906
· Most egyptians raised pigions, peasent diet
· By 1915 the rise of egyptian nationalism to a grant construction.
War and the nationalist movement in the middle east
· Resistance of colonial domination after WWI
· Italy and greece attacked constantinople to make allies
· Mustafa menal or ataturk, a skilled military commander, emergered from the trukish officcer corps, he slowly drove back the greek armies
· 1923 turkish independence, repulic, was established
· Shierf of mecca, huesien made promises to convince the arabs to rise in support of briatians war against the turks
· Arabs that were in mandates craved out in syria, iraq and lebonon under the league of nations
· Jewish zionist, british appeared to promise palistine
· Balfour declaration, existing zionist apirations for the hebrew people led to jews of diaspora
-leon pinsker, jewish intellectual, he returned for the holy land, untill WWI the number of jews
-Theodor Herzl an eutrian journalist taunted the hapless army officer Alfred dreyfus
-dreyfus was a French jew, he was accused of passing military secrets to the germans
-herzl adn other european jews joinded with jewish leders from eastern europe to form the worlds zionist orginazation, was o promote jewish migration to and settelment in palestineuntil the zionist state could be established there
-the british tookover the palestine, the arab support fo the entente powers against the turk would give them independance
-rising arabs convinced the british officals to have open ended pledges that hade been made to the zionist


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The indian alternative
· Indian shared the Nasserite emphasis on socialism and state intervention
· Indians military had defended democracy against religious extremism
· Inidan had a better communication system and bureaucractic grid
· Despite the threats, India remains the worlds largest democracy
· Nehru and his successors pushed state intervention but also encouraged foreign investment
· Green revolution, the introduction of improved seed strains, fertilizers and irrigation
· Indian government promoted literacy and education
· Inida suffered needs and resources that all developing nations have to face
· The poor have paid and will continute to pay the price for indian gradualism
Iran: Religious revivalism
· Ayatollah ruhollah khomieni was the new leader for iran
· Khomieni revolution of 1979 was a throwback to religious fervor
· He had emphasis on religious purification
· “golden age”
· Autocratic Iranian shah
· Khomieni revolution showed success in seizing power to a combination of circumstances that was unique to iran
· Iran was colonized by the European powers but was divided b/w great britian and Russia
· Shah was restored by a CIA engineered coup in 1953
· The shahs dictorial and regime offended the middle class
· Ayotollahs or religious experts
· Mullahs or local prayer
· 1979 revolution, was the fall of oil prices
· Iran distanced itself from the communist world
· Strict Islamic legal codes


MIDDLE EAST SUMMARY

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Leader Analysis Sheet

Name of Leader: Ayatollah ruhollah Khomeini
Lifespan 1902-1989
Title:
Country/region: Iran
Years in Power 1900s
Political, Social, & Economic Conditions Prior to Leaders Gaining Power * Shah’s dictatorsh\ip, his Islamic convections and his neglect of Islamic worship
  • Ayatollahs – religious experts
  • Favorism of shahs
  • His armies refused to fire on crowds
Ideology, Motivation, Goals: * Khomeini revo9lution of m1979
  • Religious purification
  • “golden age”
  • Islamic fate from the imperialist westerners
Significant Actions & events During Term of Power * revolution in 1979
  • he wanted to get rid of western government
  • got rid of law/government for Islamic law
Short-Term effects: · no emergence of a western educated middle class · Drew up many land reform, religious education, and economic development
Long-Term Effects * Brought in radical religious figures who would obey Khomeini without question
  • Laws and government was supplanted by Islamic legal codes
  • Educated middle class women



Leader Analysis Sheet

Name of Leader: Gamal Abdul Nasser
Lifespan 1900s?- 1970
Title:
Country/region: Egypt
Years in Power 1952-1967
Political, Social, & Economic Conditions Prior to Leaders Gaining Power · Khedive was in charge · Military leaders banned civilan political partoes · Military government was known for imprisoning, tourturing political dissendets · Western demorcracies and soviet union gave arms to military despots · British had the suez canal
Ideology, Motivation, Goals: · Wanted the britsh out of the seuz canal
-Nasser's socialist program
Significant Actions & events During Term of Power
· free officers movement, secret orginazation in the egypian army in the 1930s
· muslim brotherhood
-Egypt's powerful stance against the West produced rapid growth in the spread of Arab nationalism.

  • Gamar Abdel Nasser died in 1970. His successor was Anwar Sadat.
Short-Term effects: * Nasser’s defeat agianst 2 European powers
brought him huge popularity not just in Egypt but also in all Arab nations.
Long-Term Effects · free officer movement · muslim berotherhood