Leader Analysis Sheet
Name of Leader:
Catherine
Lifespan
1729-1796
Title:
Catherine the great
Country/region:
Russia
Years in Power
1761-1796
Political, Social, & Economic Conditions Prior to Leaders Gaining Power
· After peter III death she ruled as Catherine II
· She defended the powers of the central monarch
· She put down a peasant uprising, led by Emelian Pugachev
· She used the Peugachev Rebellion as an excuse to extend the powers of central government
· She converts to orthodox faith after her marriage
· Her marriage life was horrible she didn’t like her son, tsar paul I
· Importing several French philosophers for visits and admiring the arts and science
· Maintained a tradeoff, nobles served as a strong central government
· Impose punishments for crimes for local justice
· She increased the harshness of punishments nobles
· A noble named Radishev harassed Cathrines police, his writing was banned
· Tradition of Russian expansion with energy and success
Ideology, Motivation, Goals:

  • Wanted to expand Peter the Greats ideas
  • Centralizer
  • Also a Westernize
  • Enlightenment ideas to Russia
Significant Actions & events During Term of Power

· Western style art and architecture continuing to build St. Petersburg
  • She gave to the nobles in return for their service in the bureaucracy and military.
  • art and architecture
· Noble landlords, could requisition peasant labor, levy taxes on money and goods
· Partition of Poland, eliminated Poland as an independent state

The nature of westernization “instruction” of 1767
  • Russia was European state
  • Empire extended upon the terrstial globe to 32 degrees lat. And 165 long.
  • The sovereign was absolute, there is no other authority
  • Better to subjects laws under one master
  • Correct people actions in order to attain the supreme god
Short-Term effects:

  • The Russian nobility maintained a vital position.
  • Noble authority
· New law codes
Long-Term Effects
· Russia had passed through three centuries of development

Leader Analysis Sheet
Name of Leader:
Peter I
Lifespan
1672-1725.
Title:
Peter the Great
Country/region:
Prussia
Years in Power
1682- 1725
Political, Social, & Economic Conditions Prior to Leaders Gaining Power
  • Extended his predecessors polices of building up tsarist control and expanding russian territory
  • No interest in parliamentary features of western centers like Holland
  • Used the reformed force on Russia, aristocratic habits
  • Recruited bureaucrats from outside aristocratic ranks
  • Imitated military organization
  • He attacked the ottoman empire
  • After he died families wanted control
Ideology, Motivation, Goals:

  • 6 ft and 8 in tall, he was intelligent and had ruthless energy
  • Westernization was his goal
  • Enthusiastic
Significant Actions & events During Term of Power

  • Westernization meant to Peter the encouragement of autocratic rule.
  • Well defined military hierarchy
  • Developing large commercial class, peters reforms changed the Russian economy
  • Encouraged upper-class women to wear western-style clothing and attend cultural events
  • Reduced the embracement among westerners in Russia
  • Required male nobles to shave off their beard
  • Provide more education in math
  • Founded scientific institutes
  • Ballet encouraged the French
Short-Term effects:
  • increased the power of the state through recruitment of bureaucrats from outside the aristocracy.
  • capital, moved to the Baltic city of St. Petersburg.
Long-Term Effects
  • Political organization, economic development
  • attempted to increased education in mathematics and technological subjects.
  • He brought the elite into the Western cultural zone.

1.Describe the effects of Mongol occupation on Russian civilization
Ivan the Great took back Russia after pushing Mongol control. The Mongols gained territory from the Polish borders to the Ural Mountains. Mongols control never reshaped basic Russian values. Many Russian landlords adopted Mongols styles of dress and social habits. Most Russians remained Christian. The Mongol period reduced the vigor of Russian culture life. Trade and manufacturing was limited, Russia became an agricultural economy and dependent on peasant labor.

2. Trace Russian expansion under the Ivans.
Ivan III claimed succession from the Rurik dynasty. He took back kievan. Ivan IV called Ivan the terrible. Both Ivan III and Ivan IV recruited peasants to migrate to new land. These peasant-adventurers or Cossacks were Russian pioneers. The spirit provided volunteers for further expansions. They took over the Caspian Sea and Siberia. Ivan IV died which led to the Time of Troubles- plus Swedish and polish attacks on Russian territory.




Russia
Ivan the great he took bakc russia after the mongol control
and ivan the terrible
polish borders to ural mountians
most russians remained christians
trade and maunfaucting was limited
russia was under attack from mongols , not much expansion
weak navy
overthrown of mongoloverlords
capaital state
gians state
agriculture state
land based
conquisdors

the west
Peter the great
cathrine the great she took control poland
they both focused on westernization,
euopre had the ability of the atlantic ocean to go to the americas
strong navy
spain-reconcista over muslim
capital private
gains commerical in nature
cash crop agricuture
sea based
cosscaks
Russia was land based with meant they couldnt expand as much as the west becasue they had the atlantic ocaen and a strong navey but they both expanded
throught militray conquest but russia was mostly land based and didnt have a strong navy while the west was sea based and have a powerful navy
russia and the west both depeneded on labor system but

similarites \
manking trading contacts with other people help with military that could conquear
expanding through exploration
technology
dependance on labor systems
internal invaders
agriculture
women -isbealla - cathrine the great
religious


Thesis: Russia expansion was not as stronger than the west becasue russia was more land based and had a weak navy but the

west was sea based with meant more expansion for the west.






Serfdom
MI: “Russian serfdom constituted a distinctive social and economic system”
· Land nobles were divided b/w a minority of great magnates, who lived in major cities and smaller landowners whose culture was less westernized
· The power of the nobility over serfs increased
· Before the Mongol conquest Russian peasants had been free farmers with a legal position superior to that of their medieval western counterparts
· Increasing numbers of Russia peasants fell into debt and had to accept servile status to the landowners
· Serfdom gave the government a way to satisfy the nobility and regulate peasants
· As new territories were added to the empire, the system of serfdom was extended, sometime after period of free farming
· By 1800 half of Russia peasantry was enforced to the landlords and the other half was owned by the state
· Laws passed during 17-18th century tied serfs to the land and increased the legal rights of landlords
· An act in 1649 fixed the hereditary status of serfs so people born to the station could not escape, legally
· Estate agriculture and serf labor reflected eastern Europe’s growing economic subordination to the west
· Labor was used to produce grain sold to western merchants, in return western Europe brought manufactured goods
· Serfs on estates were taxed by their landlords
Dependence
MI: Russia social and economic system produced enough revenue to support the expanding state and empire.
· Cities were small and 95% of the population was rural
· Government growth encouraged some nonnoble bureaucrats and professionals
· Russia European trade was handled by westerners
· The nobility concerned about potential competition
· Russia social and economic system produced enough revenue to support the expanding state and empire
· Russia was able too trade furs which meant that the export economy was not totally oriented toward the west
· Russia population doubled during the 18th century
· There was little motivation among the peasantry for improvement because increased production

Social Unrest
MI: Russia’s social and economic system led to protest, the Pugachev rebellion of the 1770s was strongest.
· Russia’s social and economic system led to protest
· Radishev were criticizing the regimes backwardness urging measures as abolition of serfdoms
· Russian peasants for the most part were politically loyal to the tsar but they harbored bitter resentments against their landlords
· Peasents destroy manorial records, seize land, and sometimes kill landlords
· Peasent rebellion occurred from 17h century onwards
· The Pugachev rebellion of the 1770s was strongest
· Pugachev was a Cossack chieftain who claimed to be the legitimate tsar, promised to end serfdom, taxation and military conscription
· He was brought to Moscow in a case and cut into quarters in public square
Eastern Europe
MI: Regions west of Russia continued to form a borderland b/w western European and eastern Europe influences.
· Regions west of Russia continued to form a borderland b/w western European and eastern Europe influences
· Balkans under the ottoman control, growing trade with the west sparked some new cultural exchange by the 18th century
· Greek merchants picked up enlightenment ideas
· Copernicus was an early participant in fundamental discoveries in what became the scientific revolution
· Smaller eastern European nationalities lost political autonomy during the modern era
· In 1500 Poland, formed in 1386 by a union of the regional kingdoms of Poland and Lithuania was the largest state in eastern Europe aside from Russia
· As in Russia urban centers, merchant class were lacking
· Poland highlighted Russian emergence on the European as well as the Eurasian stage